Pathogenetic processes

Pathogenetic processes (PPs) — are major molecular and phenotypic characteristics that determinate cancer as complex evolutionary disease process.


Hallmarks of cancer:

Name ( total / plus / minus )
Sustaining proliferative signaling:
Proliferation ( 3129 /
948
/
1861
)
tumor growth ( 621 /
197
/
373
)
Cell growth ( 511 /
152
/
326
)
WNT signaling ( 279 /
112
/
138
)
cell cycle arrest ( 270 /
228
/
28
)
TGF-beta signaling ( 274 /
107
/
108
)
AKT signaling ( 216 /
63
/
128
)
ERK pathway (MAPK pathway) ( 179 /
36
/
76
)
cell cycle ( 139 /
46
/
79
)
BMP signaling ( 128 /
72
/
36
)
growth ( 131 /
26
/
65
)
cell cycle progression ( 108 /
46
/
50
)
mTOR signaling ( 118 /
13
/
39
)
PI3K signaling ( 83 /
24
/
44
)
JAK/STAT signaling ( 74 /
32
/
31
)
beta-catenin signaling ( 64 /
16
/
28
)
NOTCH signaling ( 59 /
24
/
24
)
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling ( 67 /
9
/
16
)
P38 signaling ( 33 /
11
/
8
)
MAPK/JNK Signaling Pathway ( 35 /
5
/
8
)
RAS signaling pathway ( 6 /
2
/
2
)
G1-S checkpoint ( 5 /
2
/
1
)
insulin signaling ( 1 /
0
/
0
)
Activating Invasion and Metastasis:
Invasion ( 2698 /
824
/
1606
)
migration ( 2243 /
672
/
1321
)
Metastasis ( 848 /
305
/
408
)
EMT ( 718 /
243
/
359
)
colony formation ( 341 /
87
/
232
)
motility ( 128 /
38
/
73
)
tumor progression ( 54 /
24
/
16
)
Lung metastasis ( 44 /
19
/
19
)
adhesion ( 40 /
8
/
18
)
poor prognosis ( 27 /
17
/
3
)
Liver metastasis ( 22 /
6
/
8
)
Bone metastasis ( 20 /
4
/
8
)
MET ( 17 /
9
/
)
cancer progression ( 13 /
5
/
2
)
cell spreading ( 6 /
0
/
2
)
Osteolysis ( 6 /
/
2
)
cell polarity ( 6 /
0
/
0
)
tumor-stroma interactions ( 2 /
1
/
)
Brain metastasis ( 2 /
0
/
1
)
disease-free survival ( 2 /
/
1
)
recurrence ( 2 /
0
/
0
)
endothelial-mesenchymal transition ( 1 /
0
/
0
)
scattering ( 1 /
0
/
0
)
Resisting Cell Death:
Apoptosis ( 1342 /
767
/
408
)
Autophagy ( 313 /
116
/
139
)
Anoikis ( 21 /
9
/
8
)
Necrosis ( 3 /
2
/
1
)
Evading growth suppressors:
cell viability ( 215 /
53
/
138
)
Hippo signaling pathway ( 163 /
68
/
24
)
survival ( 73 /
24
/
43
)
differentiation ( 49 /
31
/
16
)
Tumorigenesis ( 29 /
7
/
14
)
anchorage-independent growth ( 25 /
13
/
11
)
Antiapoptosis ( 27 /
12
/
5
)
tumor-initiating properties ( 7 /
/
3
)
Inducing Angiogenesis:
Angiogenesis ( 198 /
54
/
105
)
Enabling Replicative Immortality:
stemness ( 195 /
79
/
84
)
Senescence ( 57 /
27
/
8
)
Transformation ( 12 /
2
/
1
)
Tumor-Promoting Inflammation:
NF-kB signaling ( 189 /
67
/
66
)
inflammation ( 157 /
26
/
34
)
fibrosis ( 30 /
13
/
15
)
Hypoxic response ( 52 /
6
/
)
pyroptosis ( 11 /
7
/
1
)
Genome Instability and Mutation:
Radioresistance ( 95 /
33
/
53
)
DNA repair ( 129 /
25
/
11
)
genomic instability ( 25 /
3
/
4
)
Response to oxidative stress ( 22 /
1
/
)
Response to genotoxic stress ( 18 /
2
/
)
BRCAness ( 1 /
1
/
0
)
cellular repair of DNA double-strand breaks ( 1 /
0
/
0
)
Reprogramming Energy Metabolism:
aerobic glycolysis ( 51 /
13
/
31
)
glycolysis ( 39 /
/
3
)
glucose metabolism ( 19 /
3
/
7
)
lipogenesis ( 15 /
1
/
11
)
gluconeogenesis ( 3 /
1
/
2
)
Evading the immune system:
Antiviral response ( 65 /
2
/
4
)
immunoevasion ( 37 /
13
/
8
)
IFN production ( 40 /
2
/
3
)
myeloid differentiation ( 14 /
7
/
6
)
NK cell cytotoxicity ( 4 /
/
2
)
inflammatory monocyte recruitment ( 3 /
/
1
)
T cell activation ( 2 /
1
/
)
neutrophil chemotaxis ( 2 /
0
/
0
)
macrophage attraction ( 1 /
0
/
0
)

Drugs resistance:

cisplatin resistance ( 240 /
74
/
141
)
Chemoresistance ( 173 /
63
/
99
)
5fluorouracil resistance ( 83 /
27
/
36
)
doxorubicin resistance ( 52 /
16
/
33
)
Paclitaxel resistance ( 50 /
17
/
31
)
gemcitabine resistance ( 35 /
12
/
22
)
docetaxel resistance ( 33 /
21
/
7
)
ER stress ( 45 /
/
15
)
Sorafenib resistance ( 25 /
8
/
16
)
Temozolomide (TMZ) resistance ( 24 /
6
/
15
)
gefitinib resistance ( 25 /
6
/
13
)
Oxaliplatin resistance ( 18 /
7
/
9
)
unfolded protein response ( 31 /
1
/
1
)
Castrate Resistance ( 19 /
10
/
3
)
Adriamycin (Adr) resistance ( 17 /
5
/
10
)
Tamoxifen resistance ( 14 /
8
/
4
)
multidrug resistance ( 13 /
5
/
5
)
Taxanes (paclitaxel and docetaxel) resistance ( 14 /
5
/
3
)
Trastuzumab resistance ( 11 /
6
/
4
)
Cetuximab resistance ( 10 /
7
/
3
)
Imatinib resistance ( 12 /
/
8
)
TRAIL resistance ( 10 /
5
/
3
)
Sunitinib resistance ( 5 /
5
/
)
etoposide ( 5 /
3
/
1
)
daunorubicin (DNR) Resistance ( 4 /
2
/
2
)
Lapatinib resistance ( 3 /
1
/
2
)
MEKi resistance ( 4 /
1
/
1
)
Vorinostat Resistance ( 4 /
2
/
)
carboplatin resistance ( 3 /
1
/
2
)
epirubicin resistance ( 3 /
2
/
)
microtubule-targeting drugs ( 5 /
0
/
0
)
MTX resistance ( 4 /
/
1
)
redox homeostasis ( 4 /
0
/
0
)
mitoxantrone (MX) Resistance ( 4 /
0
/
0
)
BRAFi resistance ( 2 /
1
/
1
)
EGFR-TKI resistance ( 3 /
/
1
)
Rapamycin resistance ( 2 /
/
1
)
Camptothecin resistance ( 2 /
0
/
1
)
Afatinib resistance ( 2 /
0
/
1
)
Neratinib resistance ( 1 /
/
1
)
BCL2 inhibitors resistance ( 1 /
/
1
)
Oxaliplatin ( 1 /
1
/
)
Gamma-Secretase inhibitors resistance ( 1 /
0
/
0
)
Ibrutinib resistance ( 1 /
0
/
0
)
HCPT (Hydroxycamptothecin) resistantance ( 1 /
0
/
0
)
Tomudex (TDX) resistance ( 1 /
0
/
0
)
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) resistance ( 1 /
0
/
0
)
Vinblastine (Velban) resistance ( 1 /
0
/
0
)
cyclophosphamide sensitivity ( 1 /
0
/
0
)

Other pathogenetic processes:

erythropoiesis ( 3 /
0
/
0
)
cytotoxicity ( 1 /
1
/
)
Hepatocyte differentation ( 2 /
0
/
0
)
branching-morphogenesis ( 1 /
0
/
0
)
chondrogenesis ( 1 /
0
/
0
)